Lin zexu

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Lin zexu

Lin Zexu




Lin Zexu is Born

Aug 30, 1785

Lin Zexu is born in Houguan. He was the son of another official of the Qing government, and quickly recognised as unusually intelligent.

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Location: China



Lin Zexu Enters the Hanlin Academy

1811

Lin Zexu passes the imperial examination and gains admission to the Hanlin Academy.

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Location: China



Lin Zexu Writes to Queen Victoria

1839

Lin Zexu writes a letter to Queen Victoria in an attempt to get the British Government to crack down on the opium trade.

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Location: Canton



The British Back Down

Apr 1839

The British back down in the face of pressure from Lin Zexu and British traders at Canton surrender their opium to be destroyed, even after he offers to swap their opium for Tea. Charles Elliot, the British Superintendent of Trade in China, had promised them that they would receive compensation for their loss, but this would never happen.

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Location: Canton



Trade Into China Restarts

May 1839

Trade into China restarts, but all the merchants have to declare that they are not trading in opium, under the threat of execution should they be found smuggling.

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Location: Canton



Lin Zexu Destroys Opium

Jun 03, 1839

Lin Zexu begins the destruction of the opium that he seized by mixing it with salt and lime and throwing it into the sea near Canton.

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Location: Canton



Murder of Lin Weir

Jul 1839

Drunk sailors beat Lin Weir to death causing a conflict over how they should be tried

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Location: Kowloon



Pirates on the Pearl River

Aug 23, 1839

Pirates on the Pearl River attack a British ship that was travelling down the Pearl River from Canton to Macau. Rumours circulate that it was not pirates but Chinese soldiers and Elliot orders all British ships to leave the area. At the same time Lin Zexu closes the harbour at Macau to British ships.

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Location: Canton



HMS Volage Arrives Off Macau

Aug 30, 1839

HMS Volage arrives off Macau to protect British shipping waiting off the Chinese coast.

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Location: Hong Kong



Skirmish At Kowloon

Sep 04, 1839

Chinese authorities order the return of food bought for the British expedition resulting in a skirmish

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Location: Kowloon



Thomas Coutts

Oct 1839

The merchant ship Thomas Coutts enters the Pearl River. Ship is owned by Quakers who refuse to deal in opium, which the Chinese authorities are well aware of. They are allowed to trade after negotiating their own personal trade agreement. Charles Elliot orders a blockade of the Pearl River to prevent other ships from doing what the Thomas Coutts had done.

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Location: Pearl River



First Battle of Chuenpi

Nov 03, 1839

The Royal Saxon attempts to follow the Thomas Coutts and negotiate their own trade deal. Charles Elliot sends Royal Navy ships HMS Volage and HMS Hyacith to stop it. Chinese warships under Guan Tianpei sailed out to provide aid to Royal Saxon. The Royal Navy ships then turned their guns on the chinese. 4 Chinese vessels were destroyed in the battle.

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Location: Pearl River



Osborn Transfers to HMS Volage

Dec 18, 1839

Sherard Osborn transfers to HMS Volage as a Midshipman in China and the East Indies

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Location: China



Nicholas Tomlinson is Promoted to Major

Mar 13, 1840

Captain Nicholas Tomlinson is promoted to Major

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Location: Britain



Commodore Sir Gordon Bremer Arrived Off Macao

Jun 21, 1840

Commodore Sir Gordon Bremer arrived off Macao

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Location: Hong Kong



George Elliot Replaces Gordon Bremer

Jul 1840

Rear-Admiral George Elliot replaces Commodore Gordon Bremer as the Commander-in-Chief of the British forces in the Opium War

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Location: Hong Kong



Bombardment of Ting-Hai

Jul 05, 1840

The British bombarded the port of Ting-hai, which was then occupied by troops under Brigadier-General George Burrell.

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Location: Pearl River



Osborn Transfers Back to HMS Hyacinth

Jul 15, 1840

Sherard Osborn transfers back to HMS Hyacinth as a Midshipman in China and the East Indies

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Location: China



Gordon Bremer Becomes C in C Again

Nov 1840

Admiral George Elliot returns to Britain and Commodore Gordon Bremer takes over again as the Commander-in-Chief

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Location: Hong Kong



The British Capture the Pearl River Forts

Jan 07, 1841

British captured the Bogue forts of Chuenpi and Tycocktow that guarded the mouth of the Pearl River. Major J L Pratt of the 26th (Cameronian) Regiment commanded the britsh forces and suffered only 38 casualties. Of the Chinese fleet of 13 war-junks, 10 were captured and their flagship was destroyed.

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Location: Pearl River



Charles Elliot And Qishan Negotiate

Jan 20, 1841

Charles Elliot and Chinese Imperial Commissioner Qishan negotiated the Convention of Chuenpi which would open the port of Canton. The Daoguang Emperor was furious when he found out. He ordered Qishan to be arrested and escorted as a criminal to Beijing for trial; Qishan had his properties and assets confiscated and was sentenced to military service.

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Location: Pearl River



Canton Remains Closed

1841

The port at Canton remains closed to the British despite the treaty negociated by Charles Elliot and Qishan

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Location: Canton



Attack on Anunghoy

Feb 23, 1841

Elliot sails to the islands off Anunghoy aboard HMS Nemesis. They are fired on by a Chinese battery concealed on the shore. Nemisis returned fire and the pinaces that accompanied it fought off 30 small chinese warships. Landing forces then took the island and its fortress.

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Location: Pearl River



HMS Nemesis Embark Troops

Feb 25, 1841

HMS Nemesis embarked 130 troops of the 37th Madras Native Infantry to assist in erecting a mortar battery. This was constructed over night while under fire form Chinese positions on North Wangtong Island.

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Location: Pearl River



Guan Tianpei Dies in Action

Feb 26, 1841

The british start firing on North Wangtong and Anunghoy causing the defenders to flee

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Location: Pearl River



Canton Captured

May 27, 1841

Lieutenant-General Sir Hugh Gough captured Canton

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Location: Canton



Admiral William Parker joins HMS Cornwallis

Jun 1841

Admiral William Parker takes command of HMS Cornwallis and is despatched to take command of the East Indies and China Station.

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Location: Britain



William Parker Arrives in Hong Kong

Aug 10, 1841

William Parker arrives in Hong Kong to take over command of the British forces during the Opium War after the death of Humphrey Senhouse.

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Location: Hong Kong



The British Capture Amoy

Aug 26, 1841

The British moved north again and captured Amoy

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Location: Pearl River



The British Capture Chusan

Oct 01, 1841

The British take Chusan

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Location: Pearl River



British Capture Chinhai

Oct 10, 1841

Chinhai is taken at the cost of three British dead and 16 wounded

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Location: Pearl River



The British Capture Ningpo

Oct 13, 1841

Ningpo is captured unopposed

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Location: Pearl River



Nicholas Tomlinson Promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel

Nov 23, 1841

Major Nicholas Tomlinson is promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel

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Location: China



The Chinese Attack Ningpo

Mar 10, 1842

Chinese counter-attacked in an attempt to retake Ningpo, but were easily repelled

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Location: Pearl River



The British Capture Chapu

May 18, 1842

The british capture Chapu. Many Chinese only surrendered after their defences had been breached and their enclosures set on fire by rockets. During the assault, nine British soldiers and sailors were killed and 55 wounded. One of the dead was Lieutenant-Colonel Nicholas Tomlinson, commander of the 18th (Royal Irish) Regiment.

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Location: China



Osborn Transfers to HMS Columbine

May 19, 1842

Midshipman Sherard Osborn transfers to HMS Columbine in China

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Location: China



Shanghai Captured

Jun 19, 1842

Shanghai captured by Gough and Admiral Sir William Parker

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Location: China



Chinkiang is Captured

Jul 21, 1842

Chinkiang is captured. The military commander of the city, Hai-lin, ordered his own house to be set alight and burned to death rather than surrender.

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Location: China



The Chinese Request Peace

Aug 17, 1842

The Chinese request peace with the British ending the war

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Location: China



The Treaty of Nanking

Aug 29, 1842

The Treaty of Nanking is signed on board HMS Cornwallis. This treaty allowed the British to carry on their mercantile transactions with whatever persons they please and opened the Treaty Ports of Guangzhou, Amoy, Foochow, Shanghai and Ningpo to all traders. It also gave the island of Hong Kong to the British.

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Location: China



War Reparations From China

Mar 03, 1843

Five wagons arrive at the mint in London with the first instalment of the war reparations from China.

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Location: Britain



Lin Zexu Becomes Governor-General of Shaan-Gan

1845

Lin Zexu is appointed Governor-General of Shaan-Gan (Shaanxi-Gansu)

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Location: China



Lin Zexu Becomes Governor-General of Yun-Gui

1847

Lin Zexu is appointed governor-General of Yun-Gui (Yunnan-Guizhou)

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Location: China



Lin Zexu Dies

Nov 22, 1850

Lin Zexu dies in Guangdong

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Location: China